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The people who performed specific roles in the creation of a given sequence or story.

The individual credit definitions specify for which types of sequences a certain credit is required. See also the GCD Style Guide for general information on the style of credits.

Entering Credits

Using the Creator Record

  • Many Creators now have Creator Records established.
  • This allows you to select the Creator Name by starting to type the name of the creator in creator box and selecting the Creator Name from the list of drop down choices.
  • You can then select the credit type from the list of drop down Credit types.
  • The current available types are:
    • script
    • script, pencils and inks
    • script, pencils, inks and colors
    • script, pencils, inks and letters
    • script, pencils, inks, colors and letters
    • pencils
    • pencils and inks
    • pencils, inks and colors
    • pencils, inks and letters
    • painting
    • inks
    • colors
    • letters
    • editing
  • Selection of the 'painting' credit type generates credits in the pencils, inks and colors fields. If the painter painted over another's pencils or inks, and painting credit type is selected, you can go back and delete the extra entries in the pencils and inks fields. Or alternatively select 'colors' as the credit type and type in 'painting' in the credit description field.
  • If the creator was credited, you can check the 'Is credited' box. If you do, the 'Credited as' entry will unfold allowing you to enter the credited name if it differs from the Official Name. If the names are same, leave blank.
  • If the creator signed the work, you can check the 'Is signed' box. If you do, the 'Signature' entry will unfold allowing you to select from the stored Creator signatures. If the signature is not found you can create a generic signature by making a text entry in the 'Signed as' entry which also unfolded. This generic signature is used to record the text of a signature without being specific of the individual visual form.
  • If the creator credit is uncertain, you can check the 'Uncertain' box.
  • In addition, there is a 'Credit description' text entry which can be used to add notes about the credit such as 'adaptation' or specific pages numbers if necessary.
  • To enter another Creator credit, click the 'add another' link.
  • For Creators working under a named studio, enter as one credit for the creator, which contains the connection to the studio as stored in the database. The indexer will select the suitable creator name which contains the connection to the studio, "Clayton Cowles [of Virtual Calligraphy]". Here "of Virtual Calligraphy" is not a text entry from the indexer, but stems from the selected creator name. The story record will therefore have a direct connection in the credit record between the creator and studio.
  • If the Creator Record does not exist you can add a new creator. You can wait for the Creator Record to be approved or you can enter the credits using the text format.
  • The system allows the indexer to use both the Creator record and text credits for the same sequence. BE CAREFUL NOT TO ENTER THE SAME CREDIT USING BOTH THE CREATOR RECORD AND TEXT CREDITS.

Using the text format

  • Use the text entries for Script, Pencils, Inks, Colors, Letters (and Editing if appropriate) by entering the Creator Names as follows:
    • First and last names should be used, not initials or simply last names: "Joe Kubert", not "J. Kubert" or "Kubert"
    • If the credited name differs from the real name, the pseudonym should be noted in brackets after the full name: "Mike Esposito [as Micky Demeo]".
    • If a creator is exclusively credited with the pseudonym, the real name does not need to be recorded: "Frank Quitely" and "Stan Lee" instead of "Vince Deighan [as Frank Quitely]" and "Stanley Lieber [as Stan Lee]"
    • In case multiple initials are used they should be separated by spaces.
    • If a creator's preferred name is known and it is not their full name or does not conform to standard grammatical naming conventions, then the preferred name should be used: "E. Nelson Bridwell", "KC Carlson", "cat yronwode", "Frank Quitely"
    • To determine what creator name should be used, the following was adopted by vote of December 1, 2012:
  1. If the person is recorded in the current Who's Who, use that name.
  2. If the person is not recorded in the current Who's Who, but is recorded at Lambiek, use that name.
  3. If the person is not recorded in either the current Who's Who or at Lambiek, but has a listing in Wikipedia, use the main listing name that corresponds to the language in which the creator's works are most often published, as it appears there.
  4. If the person is not recorded in any of the above-mentioned sources, further rules shall be determined.
  5. For Creators working under a named studio, Creators and studios will be listed individually. For example, Richard Starkings and Comicraft's Dave Lanphear would be listed as "Richard Starkings; Comicraft; Dave Lanphear" and NOT as "Richard Starkings; ? [as Comicraft]; Dave Lanphear".
  • Short notes about the credit may be used, such as (signed), (adaptation), (page 2), placed in parentheses following the name. The general form for a credit is "Who's Who form" [as "Credited or signed form"] (signed)". For the purpose of crediting roles in the creative process we do not make a distinction between a job title and a credit clarification. When recording such information in the creator fields the earlier decision that 'credit clarifications are not to be capitalized' does hold, i.e. we treat something which could be considered only a job title as a credit clarification and do not capitalize it.
  • If, for a language in which the data is entered, a conflicting rule to this style guide exists, the language rule does hold, e.g. in German nouns are always capitalized.
  • Credit attribution
    • If there is uncertainty about a credit, note it with a space and a question mark after the name.
    • If a credit is unknown, enter only a question mark: "?". Do not use "n/a" or leave the field blank.
    • If a credit needs elaboration beyond the name of the field, include the job title or role after the name in parentheses.
    • If you disagree with a printed credit, index what you think is correct along with "(see notes)" and include the wrong credit and your justification for ignoring it in the notes field.
  • Multiple creators are separated by a semi-colon and space. If it is known which pages were done by specific creators, include those pages in parentheses after each name using the terms page, pages, p. or pp.
  • The word "various" can be used as a special credit value (similar to typeset) in a credit field for all Types of sequences, when multiple creators, known or unknown, are responsible for work in such a way that listing the creators is not conducive to clarity.
  • If a credit is not relevant, such as the colorist on a black and white story, check the "no credit" box under the category. Do not use "n/a" or "none" or leave the field blank.
  • There are a few further specific rules for pencillers, inkers, writers, colorists, letterers and editors. There are also special rules for credits in the Type 'Letters': see Letters and Fan Art.


* Joe Kubert
* C. C. Beck
* Joe Kubert ?
* Gene Colan [as Adam Austin]
* ? [as A. Nony Mouse]
* Richard Starkings; Comicraft; Saida Temofonte [as ST]; Eric Eng Wong [as EEW] 
* Diverse Hands; Frank Giacoia; Mike Esposito; Alan Weiss
* Vince Colletta; Murphy Anderson (Superman heads)
* Jack Kirby (page 1, pages 20-22); Alex Toth (pages 2-19)
* Jack Kirby (p. 1, pp. 20-22); Alex Toth (pp. 2-19)
* Julius Schwartz; E. Nelson Bridwell (assistant)
* Wendy Pini; Richard Pini; Wolfgang Hohlbein (translator)
* Stan Lee (plot); Dennis O'Neil [as Sergius O'Shaugnessy] (script)
* William Shakespeare (original story); Fred Hembeck (adaptation)
* Sam Glanzman [as S. J. G.] (signed) ... real name [as initials] with signature confirmation
* Frank Giacoia (see notes)
* Sid Jacobson [as Leon Harvey] (credited) ... name of actual creator, with name as credited in comic.  NOTE: the following alternate form is also used; both appear to be acceptable per the rules above.
* Leon Harvey (credited); Sid Jacobson (actual) ... name as credited in comic with note, followed by name of actual creator with note

Migration of Credits

  • We have the ability to migrate text credits to the Creator Records credits.
    • If you edit an issue, for each sequence that contains text credits, a 'migrate' button will appear. Clicking on this button will convert the text credit to a Creator Record credit.
    • Text entry (signed) will migrate to the 'is signed' box being checked.
    • Text entry (credited) will migrate to the 'is credited' box being checked.
    • The Feature text entry will also migrate to a Feature Object.
    • On the next screen, you can review the converted credits to ensure they converted correctly, make changes if necessary and save the change.
    • Text credits will not migrate if the text name does not appear in the Creator Record (e.g. as a pen name, alternate name, etc.) or if the text name appears in more than one Creator Record.
    • The following are known issues with migration:
      • If the text credits contain a mixture of commas and semi-colons, the credits may not migrate correctly.
      • If the GCD official name has been updated, the migrated credit may be incorrect.
        • Example: Michael Wm. Kaluta official name was changed from Mike Kaluta. A credit of 'Mike Kaluta (signed)' will migrate to 'Michael Wm. Kaluta (as Mike Kaluta) (signed)' which may or may not be correct as we cannot be sure how it was signed without referencing the comic itself.

A video example with a basic migration is shown here:

A video example with an error that has to be fixed is shown here:

(end of definition)

Policy Votes Affecting This Topic - 2019-11-10 - 2019-02-11 - 2018-11-17 - 2016-04-28 - 2016-03-08 - 2016-03-08 - 2012-02-29

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